Lynchburg Police: A Look at Citizen’s Arrest in Virginia Like most states, Virginia has a concept of "citizen's arrest." But you'd best know what you're doing if you're going to try it. The crime has to be a felony and you have to have actually observed the criminal commit the crime. Otherwise, you're setting yourself up for a kidnapping charge—even if the person is guilty.
Carnegie Hero Fund Commission In 1904, Andrew Carnagie established the Hero Fund, which would reward any civilian who voluntarily risks his lives while attempting to save the life of another. In the 107 years since, they have given out 9,000 medals and $32M in grants, 20% posthumously. These are the stories behind some of their winners, but brief information on all of the winners is available on their site.
NPR: The Unthinkable Franklin Pierce was the only president ever elected and subsequently denied his party's renomination. Arthur, Johnson, Fillmore, and Tyler also lost their party's nomination, but all of them ascended to the presidency from the vice presidency after the death of the president.